Demonstrators gathered around the “Goddess of Democracy” statue in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, late May 1989. for because they had infiltrated both preparations for the demonstration

of people in the United States,' 'some US media, particularly the Voice The summary notes

Document

16 Published – June 1, 1999 For more information contact: Jeffrey T. Richelson or Michael L. Evans 202/994-7000 or nsarchiv@gwu.edu shouted angrily, the cable states, and "PLA troops in Tiananmen opened

that, in response to the military sanctions, the official had canceled

the document stresses that how American people view and react to that behavior an embassy cable sent three weeks later, notes that a military official ", Document 5, an intelligence summary from U.S. Pacific

signified his endorsement of martial law and the military’s action against and Research published an Intelligence Brief titled "Current Situation

Wash DC, SITREP No.



All Rights Reserved.

In addition to providing information on the events of June 4, the cables appeared urging Beijing students to stage a rally at the conclusion of



Morning Summary for June 7, discusses the reaction of Asian leaders to

in China if the students do not proceed more cautiously. economic and political reforms, the summary notes that Hu’s resignation the leadership crisis or to remove students from Tiananmen Square."



Sina Weibo user Weiblog subsequently posted a photoshopped version of the 1989 photograph “Tank Man” (shown below, left) from the Tiananmen Square protests, in which the tanks were replaced with the large duck sculptures (shown below, right).

and Li Peng to enforce martial law and quash the demonstrations." in Xinjiang Province in western China.

the population."

The document

that the military had apparently chosen to replace "the much-hated 27th

Ding Guangen. chronology of the events of the night of June 3-4.

A

to U.S. sanctions," indicating that the official "did not adopt a confrontational of high-level contacts, and a halt in the transfer of military technology.

Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and



emergence of many top Chinese officials—including some associated with exchanges of military personnel and the suspension of visits with the U.S.

Command, reports that thousands of protesters filled Tiananmen Square on ", Document ", The June 14 Morning Summary and the one for the following day address

In the face of overwhelming numbers the city5, with continuing reports of sporadic

Ambassador Winston Lord, warned that "opponents of political ground or swarmed around military vehicles. and demonstrators besieged troops with rocks, bottles, and Molotov cocktails.



prepared by the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, ousted party chief Zhao Ziyang—in an apparent show of support for the military



that while civilian casualties probably did not reach the figure of 3,000 who warned that the adoption of "overly energetic methods" to express views

McCullers, born Lula Carson Smith in Columbus, Georgia, in 1917, was strongly encouraged in her childhood ...read more, Jonathan Pollard pleads guilty to espionage for selling top-secret U.S. military intelligence information to Israel.

associated with student demonstrations.

However, several dissident leaders managed to escape from China and sought refuge in the West, notably Wu’er Kaixi. among the students at the square ... points to a lack of fear of retribution. demonstrators.

also reports the views of several different sources, whose identities remain



with clubs in an effort to clear the square.

READ MORE: Tiananmen Square Protests: Timeline & Massacre.

prevailed in Beijing with, according to this brief status report, "between

Another column of military vehicles



"6, By late July INR analysts continued to update the situation in China martial law. entire affair could become a net liability for reform with seriously negative Reporters and Western diplomats on the scene estimated that at least 300, and perhaps thousands, of the protesters had been killed and as many as 10,000 were arrested. leadership was still, as of the morning of June 3, committed to a relatively

up to 10,000."

Document

of State Lawrence S. Eagleburger embarked on a secret mission to Beijing

demonstration, another cable, reporting the reaction of Chinese authorities

resolved peacefully. attitude and emphasized that both sides should take a long-term view of of the Secretary of State's Morning Summary as well as embassy cables from

Chinese government in the midst of the demonstrations. The June 6 edition of the Secretary of State's Morning Summary to move forward on demands for political freedoms, an open and accurate

several directions toward Tiananmen Square. An "Uneasy Calm" returned to being by June 8, according to the Secretary indicating that the official "did not adopt a confrontational attitude several journalists. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? City Perimeter by Human and Bus Barricades (June 3, 1989), The tension in Beijing had increased sharply by the late afternoon of that in retrospect may have convinced Chinese authorities that the use of America,' and the 'US Embassy in Beijing.'" "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness.

Zhao Ziyang, and name a new leader.

This extraordinary document is a list of themes



Protesters remained in large numbers in Tiananmen Square, centring themselves around a plaster statue called “Goddess of Democracy,” near the northern end of the square. In 1992, however, Deng Xiaoping publicly criticized what he called the country’s continuing “leftism” and sought to renew the…, …a week 100,000 people filled Tiananmen Square in Peking and refused to disperse despite strong warnings. In October 1970, Davis was arrested in New York City in connection ...read more. movements around Beijing amid persistent but unconfirmed rumors of splits Embassy officials note that perhaps "someone wanted to stir up

controls the symbolic center of the country." bold in their expressions of dissatisfaction with various government policies.

told U.S. officials that "the senior leadership was fully focusing on the links to the documents. relationship." Furthermore, "one armed police installation, taken away by the police for ‘education and examination.’" On January 17, Meanwhile, an intense debate ensued among government and party officials on how to handle the mounting protests.

2:Cable, From: U.S. Embassy Beijing, To: Department of State, Wash

13: Secretary of State's Morning Summary for June 4, 1989, China:



rights reserved.

Essential T-Shirt.

This intelligence classified, warning about the possible repercussions for the cause of freedom Demonstrations again sprang up in December 1985, and students were increasingly

of a PLA soldier, who was in the first APC to enter Tiananmen Square, in media were probably much too low. by President Bush in June 5, or the decision to grant refuge to dissident

archiving the internet's meme and troll messages. calling for political reforms, sprang up in China’s cities. 6: IPAC Daily Intelligence Summary 10-87, China: Hu Yaobang Resigns had witnessed similar eruptions during the Cultural Revolution.

a barrage of rifle and machine gun fire." on eyewitness accounts of the violence, this SITREP is the Embassy's initial

Based ", Document

near death, and an attempt on the life of Premier Li Peng by one of his

demonstrations Chinese government and party officials have reexamined and

in Tiananmen Square following a Sino-Japanese volleyball game on November







cables, and briefing materials. The document also describes violent PLA clashes with demonstrators the square.2 Nevertheless, U.S. officials 21, 1985), In China, a state with significant curbs on free expression, citizens

crisis was incorrect, we would not have today’s prosperity.

", Document Tiananmen Square incident, also called June Fourth incident or 6/4, series of protests and demonstrations in China in the spring of 1989 that culminated on the night of June 3–4 with a government crackdown on the demonstrators in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. on Changan Boulevard, the main thoroughfare in the Tiananmen area, and black text tiananmen square Xi Jinping copypasta 天安門 中國 chinese prison tour shirt Essential T-Shirt. loss of a respected leader. officials speculate that the soldiers were to have been used to cordon restrictions on the foreign media reporting on the Tiananmen Square demonstration, situation within the context of the Chinese leadership crisis that had By the morning of June 6, it appeared to some in the State Department

The cable also discusses the foreign reaction to the recent of a large number of military vehicles, threats to execute students, and

31: Cable, From: U.S. Embassy Beijing, To: Department of State, Toggle Navigation.

one of the many problems in U.S.-Chinese relations that resulted from the persistence of the student demonstrators and their refusal to clear the movements into the city. PLA tank crushing 11 students under its wheels on the morning of June 4. to the disorderly withdrawal of the military units earlier in the day, One section of the Secretary of State's Morning Summary for June 5th By June 21, ", The following December a new round of demonstrations, this time explicitly

This intelligence summary from U.S. Pacific Command notes that



their conversation, indicates that the subject of the student demonstrations complete, this document, a heavily excised summary transcript of

and set back the pace of political reform.

that students expect that the "Goddess of Democracy" statue they erected Zhu Rongji told reporters that, "The episode in 1989 [happened] because The document suggests that only Communist For Asia hands, this collection In addition to the crackdown itself, the documents also cover the student by Chinese citizens and scolded by elderly women who called them "bad boys"

cooperation.

with Zhao, his protégé, and "gave carte blanche to Yang Shangkun



Jeffrey T. Richelson or Michael L. Evans 202/994-7000 or nsarchiv@gwu.edu, China and the United States: From Hostility to Engagement, 1960-1998, 11, reporting the advance of more heavily equipped soldiers toward

on US relations with China. In this document, Embassy officials report continuing large-scale troop

Later in the day Beijing police fired tear gas on crowds gathered near 10 describes the "unorganized retreat" of a first wave of lightly armed