The Biimaal clan is widely known for leading a resistance against the colonials in southern Somalia.The Biimaal violently resisted the imposition of colonialism and fought against the Italian colonialists of Italian Somaliland in a twenty-year war known as the Biimaal revolt in which many of their warriors assassinated several Italian governors. The Digil sub-clan mainly consists of farmers and coastal people, while the Mirifle are predominantly nomadic pastoralists. The argument that minorities should be given greater representation appears to have gained some acceptance: for example, it has been observed that cabinet selections under Hassan Sheikh’s presidency worked using the 5, rather than 4.5, distribution structure. Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900. Somalia also includes religious minorities, constituting less than 2 per cent of the population.

Civilians face serious abuses, including targeted and indiscriminate killings, forced recruitment and evictions, and sexual violence.

As the last of its forces withdrew in January 2009, the government remained only in control of the town of Baidoa and some neighbourhoods of Mogadishu. Alliance Ahlusunna Wal-jam'a in central Somalia (Surre). When British Somaliland gained independence in 1960, it immediately joined with the formerly Italian-administered Somaliland. Hawiye along with some Samaale sub-clans migrated to central and southern Somalia in the 1st century AD to populate the Horn of Africa. Presidential elections took place in early 2017 and were largely a contest between candidates from Somalia’s dominant clans.

Abbink's "The Total Somali Clan Genealogy" provides a list of the Tunni sub-clans within the five gamas and is attached to this Response. Violence and continued military atrocities are not limited to the capital but spread to several major towns in South and Central Somalia. Barre constructed the inner core of his government from representatives of three clans belonging to the Darood clan family. Website: http://www.interpeace.org, Puntland Development and Research Centre As the 0.5 subgroup is not based on the actual net population, it does not provide equal representation: on the contrary, it places limits on the space for political participation among minority groups and facilitates the domination of government and other political structures by majority clans. Some 400,000 people fled into eastern Ethiopia. Despite efforts to reform and strengthen formal governance in Somalia, the new government is currently able to provide only limited protection for minorities and offers limited opportunities for participation for women, with no clear recognition of their rights in Somalia in its 2012 Constitution, nor an explicit minimum quota for female representation in parliament. These two years allowed warlords to fragment the country in an attempt to consolidate shifting fiefdoms and alliances, and to deny resources to civilian communities as the source of this power.

(n.d.). [1]. However, political institutions established since 2012 remain weak. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001. The failing economy and political system reawakened long suppressed discontent over the regional neglect of the north, compounded by the fact that various clan groups in the north were not treated equally. In addition to subjecting the population in areas under its control to a range of serious human rights abuses including extrajudicial killings, the group has also launched a series of devastating and indiscriminate attacks against civilians, including a truck bomb in Mogadishu in October 2017 that killed more than 350 people. The Somali terminology for the levels of social segmentation is complex, amongst others because of processes of territorial dispersion and social change. Website: http://www.apd-somaliland.org, Centre for Research and Dialogue Other vulnerable groups include occupational minorities or clans that are associated with specific trades, such as.