Soil microorganisms act as both sinks and sources of available phosphorus in the biogeochemical cycle. How does phosphorus become available again after it becomes stored in rock? It is suggested that the water regime of soils that are to be used for organic wastes disposal is taken into account in the preparation of waste management regulations. [10][14] Phytoplankton cell lysis releases cellular dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus to the surrounding environment. Such eutrophication may also give rise to toxic algal bloom. Course Hero, Inc. The rest is quickly locked away by reactions with soil clay minerals. Basics of The Phosphorus Cycle in Food Production. You can ask here for a help. Humans have caused major changes to the global phosphorus cycle through shipping of phosphorus minerals, and use of phosphorus fertilizer, and also the shipping of food from farms to cities, where it is lost as effluent. These rocks are ground up and treated in fertilizer factories to make the phosphate (PO4-) in them water-soluble so that phosphate can be directly taken up by plants from the small pool of soluble phosphorus in soils. Eighty percent of the mined phosphorus is used to make fertilizers. Cultural or anthropogenic eutrophication, however, is water pollution caused by excessive plant nutrients; this results in excessive growth in the algal population; when this algae dies its putrefaction depletes the water of oxygen. An example of this is the Canadian Experimental Lakes Area. This causes a sharp increase in phosphorus concentration in solution and phosphorus can be leached. However, when foods are shipped from farms to cities, the substantial levels of Phosphorus that is drained into the water systems is called artificial or anthropogenic eutrophication. Various physiological strategies are used by plants and microorganisms for obtaining phosphorus from this low level of phosphorus concentration.[13]. Some of the organic phosphorus compounds can be hydrolyzed by enzymes synthesized by bacteria and phytoplankton and subsequently assimilated. This is of particular concern for the environmentally sound management of such areas, where disposal of agricultural wastes has already become a problem. Besides making biomolecules, phosphorus is also found in bone and the enamel of mammalian teeth, whose strength is derived from calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite. Donate or volunteer today!

[29], Human interference in the phosphorus cycle occurs by overuse or careless use of phosphorus fertilizers. However, excessive amounts of nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, are detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. Use with pleasure! Unlike many other biogeochemical cycles, the atmosphere does not play a significant role in the movement of phosphorus, because phosphorus and phosphorus-based compounds are usually solids at the typical ranges of temperature and pressure found on Earth.