Gambia, Rio Pongo, Calabar; To engage in moral absolutism with regard to history, as Hayden does in "Middle Passage," is to construct a myth and to revise history with an eye toward a distinctly moral interpretation. Now we                  demand, good sirs, the extradition of                  Cinquez and his accomplices to La                  Havana. voyage through death Writing takes off exponentially when the author introduces poetry to his prose.

Middle Passage: voyage through death to life upon these shores. from those black fields, and I’d be trading still more words, such as suite, heat, and complete. Ed. left the Guinea Coast The passage speaks of the transformation from blindness to vision that can be effected through the arts. Our linguist says their moaning is a prayer for death, our and their own.           cannot kill the deep immortal human wish,    It sickens me The hero of the poem is Cinquez, the captive prince who inspired and carried out the Amistad mutiny. Whether in response to the Eliot model or not, Hayden develops this dimension of the metaphor in the sailor's letter: "8 bells. 's eyes Hayden added, "The style, or method, might be thought of as, in a way, cinematic, for very often one scene ends and another begins without any obvious transitional elements." Cinquez—                or let us say ‘the Prince’—Cinquez shall die.”. the sweltering cattle stowed spoon-fashion there; The contrast of "rotten" with what ought to be living thoughts--"mercy" an "love"--is reminiscent of yet another precedent set by Eliot in "The Wasteland," especially in "Burial of the Dead." The rest is quickly told: It begins in medias res with the depiction of ships under full sail carrying slaves in mid-Atlantic.

where the living and the dead, the horribly dying, the sweltering cattle stowed spoon-fashion there; that some went mad of thirst and tore their flesh. with the water’s and the rigging’s usual sounds, and kill the sick and old and lead the young Ta-Nehisi Coates on Macbeth, Sonia Sanchez, and how poetry shaped him into the writer he is today.

where many made their tomb,

Speaking indifferently to him, who had driven out the coldand polished my good shoes as well.What did I know, what did I know of love’s austere and lonely offices? he turned on me. Cinquez-- for the suckling babe snatched from her breast, Its claws have scratched sight from the Capt.

Lost three this morning leaped with crazy laughter, to the waiting sharks, sang as they went under.”. Onomatopoeia- the use of words such as buzz, creak, crunch, thud, and thump, whose pronunciations suggest their meanings.

and terrible thing, needful to man as air,    The most salient breakthrough that Hayden accomplished was the realization that whereas the "mythic histories," "the poems including history" of Eliot, Pound, Crane, and Williams, fell outside of the concerns of most Americans, "mythical histories" written for African Americans would necessarily find a captivated audience. Over          Life’s          Tempestuous          Sea. Imagery - sensory description in poems used to help the reader see, hear, feel, taste, and smell what's being described. But, oh, the living look at you        with human eyes whose suffering accuses you,          whose hatred reaches through the swill of dark          to strike you like a leper’s claw. The traditional epic depicts the values and patterns of the life of an entire people or culture through the experience of a hero who represents in himself certain ideals of that culture. must fork through the middle passage

with cargo of five hundred blacks and odd

Deep in the festering hold thy father lies,   

Twenty years a trader, twenty years, for there was wealth aplenty to be harvested   from those black fields, and I’d be trading still   but for the fevers melting down my bones. After the speech of the outraged Spaniard, the poem concludes with a six-line coda: in these lines Cinquez is identified by the poet-narrator and thereby personifies the "deathless primaveral image" of "the deep immortal human wish, / the timeless will." 2. “But for the storm that flung up barriers. the dark ships move, the dark ships move, . Ever wondered what the ancestors would believe There was, that interval of moonless calm filled only. Misfortune        follows in our wake like sharks (our grinning          tutelary gods). We pray that Thou wilt grant, O Lord,

Hayden said that the working sheets of "Middle Passage" are long since lost.

Would have the drums talk war and send

The power is in the restraint and the purity of diction." Which one of us Voyage through death                                      to life upon these shores. iambic pentameter is the most commonly used form. Finally, Cinquez's "transfiguration," which the poet-narrator speaks into existence in its closing lines, is Cinquez's entrance into history as an individual, a name, a consciousness, a monad of the historical will. The reference to Christianity in this section [Section I], the lines from the hymn, emphasize the irony of the Christian acceptance and justification of the slave trade as a means of bringing "heathen souls" to Christ. since still my eyes can see these words take shape air, the night itself were striking us. we are determined to return to Cuba Some try to … Rhythm- The pattern of sound created by the arrangement of stressed and

for there was wealth aplenty to be harvested A ballad is a poem that tells a story and is written in groups of four lines with rhyming. Like other poets who wished to compose long poems in the mode of The Waste Land, Robert Hayden had not only to resolve the many problems inherent in such a project, but he also had to negotiate another complement of difficulties occasioned by the distance from which he was forced to contemplate American society.

and for tin crowns that shone with paste, his warriors to burn the sleeping villages, and kill the sick and old and lead the young, for there was wealth aplenty to be harvested, from those black fields, and I’d be trading still. where none is lonely, none hunted, alien,    and they had fallen on us with machete there are so many here who seem inclined Jesus          Saviour          Pilot          Me It is a blindness that prevails in the poem until John Quincy Adams, as the champion of human rights, speaks "with so much passion of the right of chattel slaves" (lines 164-65) and their will to be free. From Crane, Hayden derived the narrator who is a "floating singer," the catalogs of the names of ships, and some of the vocabulary (e.g. Rhyme scheme -The pattern of end rhyme in a poem. and breathes on you its fetid scorching breath; cannot kill the deep immortal human wish, “But for the storm that flung up barriers. Now we 14. Announcing also its own textual strategy, Hayden's poem immediately embarks upon an intertextual passage that refigures the Middle Passage of its title, voyaging through a textual death to rebirth in a new poetics of a new world. Deep in the bowels of a slave ship,

to speak with so much passion of the right Our men went down. would turn to exorcism. Our loyal                  Celestino ran from below with gun                  and lantern and I saw, before the cane-                knife’s wounding flash, Cinquez,                that surly brute who calls himself a prince,                  directing, urging on the ghastly work. Swift as a puma's leap it came. Voyage through death Lost three this morning leaped with crazy laughter to the waiting sharks, sang as they went under."

What port awaits us, Davy Jones’  for the suckling babe snatched from her breast, Pontheololla T. Williams In "Middle Passage" he treats the origin of the slave trade in Africa as it relates to the devlopment of the new ethnic group—the Afro-American. God exists neither as a source of hope for the enslaved nor as a divine "pilot" for seagoing Christians, but merely as an excuse to justify cruel exploitation of one group of human beings by another. "Middle Passage" by poet Robert Hayden is stylized as an American epic poem, using a collage technique to offer different perspectives of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Cinquez's rebellion against enslavement thus stands for the physical and spiritual struggle for freedom by all blacks then and since.