The chemical symbol for Protactinium is Pa. Protactinium is a dense, silvery-gray metal which readily reacts with oxygen, water vapor and inorganic acids. Neptunium is the first transuranic element. Fluorine is a chemical element with atomic number 9 which means there are 9 protons and 9 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Uranium is U. Chromium is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal4 which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. Tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. Yttrium is a chemical element with atomic number 39 which means there are 39 protons and 39 electrons in the atomic structure.

The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation. Nearly all technetium is produced synthetically, and only minute amounts are found in the Earth’s crust. Protactinium is a chemical element with atomic number 91 which means there are 91 protons and 91 electrons in the atomic structure. On the other hand neon, the noble gas, immediately preceding it in the periodic table, requires 2081 kJ/mol or 21.56 eV/atom.

It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. Because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). Helps to understand reactivity of elements (especially metals, which lose electrons). Californium is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye (after einsteinium). Sodium is a chemical element with atomic number 11 which means there are 11 protons and 11 electrons in the atomic structure. Curium is a hard, dense, silvery metal with a relatively high melting point and boiling point for an actinide.

© 2019 periodic-table.org / see also Ruthenium is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. Hafnium’s large neutron capture cross-section makes it a good material for neutron absorption in control rods in nuclear power plants, but at the same time requires that it be removed from the neutron-transparent corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors. Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring element on the Earth’s crust. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. Antimony is a lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands (rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral).

Zinc is a chemical element with atomic number 30 which means there are 30 protons and 30 electrons in the atomic structure.

Platinum is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. The ninth member of the lanthanide series, terbium is a fairly electropositive metal that reacts with water, evolving hydrogen gas. At 0.099%, phosphorus is the most abundant pnictogen in the Earth’s crust. Neon is a chemical element with atomic number 10 which means there are 10 protons and 10 electrons in the atomic structure. Mendelevium is a chemical element with atomic number 101 which means there are 101 protons and 101 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Thulium is Tm. Discoverer: Davy, Sir H. and Thénard, L.-J. [Xe] 6s2 for barium). Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. The chemical symbol for Palladium is Pd. Zirconium is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. Bismuth is a chemical element with atomic number 83 which means there are 83 protons and 83 electrons in the atomic structure. Fermium is a chemical element with atomic number 100 which means there are 100 protons and 100 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Potassium is K. Potassium was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. The chemical symbol for Tin is Sn.

Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3.

It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys. The chemical symbol for Krypton is Kr. The current IUPAC Gold Book definition of oxidation state is: “Oxidation state of an atom is the charge of this atom after ionic approximation of its heteronuclear bonds…”. Oxygen is a colourless, odourless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air. Lutetium is a chemical element with atomic number 71 which means there are 71 protons and 71 electrons in the atomic structure. Platinum is a chemical element with atomic number 78 which means there are 78 protons and 78 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Aluminum is Al. Aluminium is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group. Polonium is a rare and highly radioactive metal with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to selenium and tellurium, though its metallic character resembles that of its horizontal neighbors in the periodic table: thallium, lead, and bismuth. These have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them. The chemical symbol for Francium is Fr.

The chemical symbol for Zinc is Zn. Arsenic is a metalloid. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals. The chemical symbol for Berkelium is Bk. Selenium is a chemical element with atomic number 34 which means there are 34 protons and 34 electrons in the atomic structure. Silicon is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. The chemical symbol for Nickel is Ni. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. © 2019 periodic-table.org / see also Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Discoverer: Priestley, Joseph and Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, Discoverer: Ramsay, William and Travers, Morris, Discoverer: Ramsay, Sir William and Strutt, John (Lord Rayleigh), Discoverer: Del Rio, Andrés Manuel (1801) and Sefström, Nils Gabriel (1830), Discoverer: Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Paul-Émile, Discoverer: Ramsay, Sir William and Travers, Morris, Discoverer: Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm and Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert, Discoverer: Perrier, Carlo and Segrè, Emilio, Discoverer: Reich, Ferdinand and Richter, Hieronymus, Discoverer: Müller von Reichenstein, Franz Joseph, Discoverer: Ramsay, William and Travers, Morris William, Discoverer: Kirchhoff, Gustav and Bunsen, Robert. Significant concentrations of boron occur on the Earth in compounds known as the borate minerals. The chemical symbol for Boron is B.

Rubidium is a chemical element with atomic number 37 which means there are 37 protons and 37 electrons in the atomic structure. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. Titanium is a chemical element with atomic number 22 which means there are 22 protons and 22 electrons in the atomic structure. Lead is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. The chemical symbol for Nitrogen is N. Nitrogen is a colourless, odourless unreactive gas that forms about 78% of the earth’s atmosphere. In nuclear industry gadolinium is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to very high neutron absorbtion cross-section of two isotopes 155Gd and 157Gd. Yttrium is a chemical element with atomic number 39 which means there are 39 protons and 39 electrons in the atomic structure. Tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. The chemical symbol for Bromine is Br. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. Lutetium is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Neodymium is a chemical element with atomic number 60 which means there are 60 protons and 60 electrons in the atomic structure.

Iron is a metal in the first transition series. Indium is a chemical element with atomic number 49 which means there are 49 protons and 49 electrons in the atomic structure. Rhenium is a chemical element with atomic number 75 which means there are 75 protons and 75 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Gold is Au.

Europium is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. In nuclear industry boron is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to the high neutron cross-section of isotope 10B.

For example, only 7.38 eV is required to remove the outermost electron from a lead atom, while 88,000 eV is required to remove the innermost electron. Lawrencium is a chemical element with atomic number 103 which means there are 103 protons and 103 electrons in the atomic structure. Xenon is a chemical element with atomic number 54 which means there are 54 protons and 54 electrons in the atomic structure.