In the early 20th century, the victorious Allies divided the territory held by the former Ottoman Empire after World War I, cutting through centuries-old religious and ethnic communities in the process. Help us tell stories the mainstream ignores. Despite their differences, Sunni and Shia have lived alongside each other in relative peace for most of history. As a minority in the Islamic community, the Shiʿah faced much persecution and, according to Shiʿi doctrine, offered up many martyrs over…, …killed by Umayyad forces at Karbala, now also in Iraq, in October 680.…. 5. The Battle of Karbala is observed by the remembrance of Martyrs of Karbala each Muharram by each Muslim, coming from all across the world on its tenth day, known as the Day of Ashura. Finally, in 1979, the Islamic Revolution in Iran produced a radical brand of Shia Islam that would clash violently with Sunni conservatives in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere in the decades to follow.

The battle helped secure the position of the Umayyad dynasty, but among Shiʿi Muslims (followers of Ḥusayn) the 10th of Muḥarram (or ʿĀshūrāʾ) became an annual holy day of public mourning. T 020 3325 4288 You are asking about the deatils of the vents of Karbala. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Sunnis love Imam Hussain and the family of the Prophet (saw) whom they consider the best of families. The split between the two main sects within Islam goes back some 1,400 years. She died in 681. Yazīd I succeeded his father, Muʿāwiyah I, to the caliphate in the spring of 680. ... A common thread in most of these conflicts is the ongoing battle between Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shia Iran for influence in … We believe in the martyrdom of al-Hussain bin Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) in Karbala. The roots of the Sunni-Shia divide can be traced all the way back to the seventh century, soon after the death of the prophet Muhammad in A.D. 632. Personal Chair of Islamic Studies and Persian, University of Edinburgh. Omissions? Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images. | The Big Picture #8, Should Muslims boycott France? However, on his arrival at Karbala, west of the Euphrates River, on October 10, he was confronted by a large army of perhaps 4,000 men sent by ʿUbayd Allāh and under the command of ʿUmar ibn Saʿd, son of the founder of Kūfah.

Amid the increasing politicization of Islam and the rise of fundamentalists on both sides of the divide, sectarian tensions intensified in the early 21st century, especially amid the upheavals caused by two Persian Gulf Wars, the chaos that followed the U.S.-backed ouster of Saddam Hussein’s Sunni regime in Iraq, and the mass uprisings across the region that began with the Arab Spring in 2011. 8. The Battle of Karbala. Answer this question. Regulated by IMPRESS: Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! This combination of money and power would only grow.

In the city of Kūfah (in modern-day Iraq), those who maintained that the leadership of the Muslim community (ummah) rightly belonged to Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib and his descendants invited Ḥusayn to take refuge with them, promising to have him proclaimed caliph there. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Re: Karbala story, the sunni version?

Ali, himself, was killed in 661, as the bitter power struggle between Sunni and Shia continued. There should be no hatred or violence between Sunni and Shia, just academic discussion. The events of Karbala are an historical matter, not a theological matter. While Shia represent the majority of the population in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Azerbaijan, and a plurality in Lebanon, Sunnis are the majority in more than 40 other countries, from Morocco to Indonesia. In addition to Karbala, the NPR podcast Throughline identified three key milestones that would sharpen Sunni-Shia divisions by the end of the 20th century. Sunnis love Imam Hussain and the family of the Prophet (saw) whom they consider the best of families. “It was obviously intended by the Ummayads to put the definitive end to all claims to leadership of the ummah as a matter of direct descendence from Muhammad,” says Hazleton of Hussein’s death, and the death of all the surviving members of Muhammad’s family, at Karbala. Should all these practices come to an end, all Muslims would be equal in mourning and commemorating the Battle of Karbala,” Khalifa said. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Imam Hassan had more claim to the khilafa than Muawiya, although Imam Hassan saved the blood of the Ummah by standing down. The Battle of Karbala happened on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH as per the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, known as Iraq today.. “The essence of the problem is that Muhammad died without a male heir, and he never clearly stated who he would want to be his successor,” says Lesley Hazleton, author of After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Sunni-Shia Split in Islam.

5Pillars is the only regulated Muslim news site in Europe, Australia and the Americas. This group became known as the followers of Ali; in Arabic the Shiat Ali, or simply Shia. At stake was not only control of Muhammad’s religious and political legacy, but also a great deal of money, in the form of taxes and tributes paid by the various tribes united under the banner of Islam. Within the century after Muhammad’s death, his followers had built an empire that stretched from Central Asia to Spain. Dr Qadhi makes the following points: 1. The latter did so, summoning the chiefs of the tribes, making them responsible for the conduct of their people, and threatening reprisal. 1. Subscribe to our newsletter and stay updated on the latest news and updates! Battle of Karbala, (October 10, 680 [10th of Muḥarram, ah 61]), brief military engagement in which a small party led by al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad and son of ʿAlī, the fourth caliph, was defeated and massacred by an army sent by the Umayyad caliph Yazīd I. We should not cast aspertions on the character of Muawiya because he was a sahabi and perhaps his political decisions did in fact save Muslim blood. Free e-mail watchdog.

4. All Rights Reserved. American theologian Shaykh Yasir Qadhi delivers a lecture presenting a Sunni version of the Karbala events. First came the rise of the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century, which transformed Iran (through force) from a Sunni center into the Shia stronghold of the Middle East. When Yazīd learned of the rebellious attitude of the Shiʿah in Kūfah, he sent ʿUbayd Allāh, governor of Basra, to restore order.

The blood of Hussain is primarily on the hands of the people of Kufa, but also on the hands of the Kufan general Ibn Ziyad and Yazeed himself. 2. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).

American theologian Shaykh Yasir Qadhi delivers a lecture presenting a Sunni version of the Karbala events.

W The women who had accompanied Ḥusayn, including at least one of his wives, his sister Zaynab, and his surviving children, were taken first to Kūfah and then across the desert to Yazīd in Damascus. “Neither of them are representative of the vast majority of Sunni Muslims or the vast majority of Shia Muslims around the world,” says Hazleton of the fundamentalist regimes governing both Saudi Arabia and Iran. Answer #1 | 19/07 2014 10:11 Same. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness.

6. salaam, actually your question is wrong.

He and almost all his family and followers were killed. i have found a site with all the backrounds and events of karabala as well as the events leading up to ashura if anybody wants to read about it. A massive Sunni army waited for them, and by the end of a 10-day standoff with various smaller struggles, Hussein was killed and decapitated, and his head brought to Damascus as a tribute to the Sunni caliph. The death of the prophet Muhammad depicted in a 16th-century Turkish miniature. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Subscribe to our mailing list and we'll send you updates, Shaykh Yasir Qadhi: A Sunni perspective on Karbala, Two seriously hurt after London mosque attack, How will the U.S. Election impact Muslims? Sunni-Shia divisions would fuel a long-running civil war in Syria, fighting in Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Yemen and elsewhere, and terrorist violence on both sides. The divide originated with a dispute over who should succeed the Prophet Muhammad as leader of the Islamic faith he introduced. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Sunni tradition has it that she was buried in Cairo. Corrections? The Shiʿah maintain that she was buried in Damascus, and her supposed tomb is an important site of pilgrimage for the Shiʿah. The tomb of Ḥusayn at Karbala is a very holy site for the Shiʿah. Tweet. Karbala, Umayyad section of Mesopotamia Cause of death Beheaded at the Battle of Karbala Resting place His shrine at Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq 32°36′59″N 44°1′56.29″E Residence Medinah, Hejaz Known for being a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Battle of Karbala… Though the two main sects within Islam, Sunni and Shia, agree on most of the fundamental beliefs and practices of Islam, a bitter split between the two goes back some 14 centuries. How will the U.S. Election impact Muslims? Majority of real Sunnis would say it was a battle of truth and falsehood. 3. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Battle of Karbala, brief military engagement in which a small party led by the grandson of Muhammad, al-Husayn ibn Ali, was defeated and massacred by an Umayyad army. Sunni view on the Battle of Karbala? “This was important, because by the time he died, he had basically brought all the tribes of Arabia together into a kind of confederation that became the ummah—the people or nation of Islam.”. Eventually the Sunni majority (named for sunna, or tradition) won out, and chose Muhammad’s close friend Abu Bakr to become the first caliph, or leader, of the Islamic community. Abu Bakr, later leader of the Islamic community, is seen bending over him. The Big Picture #3: What Muslim parents need to know about LGBT classes in schools, Muslim leaders urge government to allow congregational prayers in mosques. A common thread in most of these conflicts is the ongoing battle between Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shia Iran for influence in the oil-rich Middle East and surrounding regions.

Archiv Gerstenberg/ullstein bild/Getty Images. Despite the long-running nature of the Sunni-Shia divide, the fact that the two sects coexisted in relative peace for many centuries suggests their struggles may have less to do with religion than with wealth and power.