, Banlaoi, R. (2005) Abu Sayyaf Group: From Mere Banditry to Genuine Terrorism. International Journal on World Peace. Thus, this raises the concern that peace agreements may only be good on paper but bad in actual practice. Omissions? According to a report from the International Crisis Group (2019), the Bangsamoro government must also address in the disarmament of thousands of former militants, reign in other Islamist groups, and provide assistance in the integration of former guerillas to government service. (2015) Indigenous vs. native: negotiating the place of Lumads in the Bangsamoro homeland. This was an additional factor in aggravating conflicts between the native Moro Muslims and Filipino Christian settlers as disputes over land increased.

However, Coronel-Ferrer (2012) suggests the institutionalization of both power-sharing and power-dividing measures in order to address the problem of lower political participation among ethnic groups in war-torn societies. Sporadic fighting took place in 1901 and was renewed in the spring of 1903. Despite threats from Islamic extremists to stall the plebiscite, the overwhelming result finally secured the end of the civil war between the Christian-dominated Filipino government in Manila and the Moro Muslims in Mindanao who once sought independence from the Philippines. In 1969, political tensions and open hostilities developed between the Government of the Philippines and Moro Muslim rebel groups. In response, the University of the Philippines professor Nur Misuari established the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), an armed insurgent group that was committed to establishing an independent Mindanao. This article is about the insurgency of 1969–2015. The agreement calls for Muslim self-rule in parts of the southern Philippines in exchange for a deactivation of rebel forces by the MILF.

All these incidents resulted in massive loss of investments abroad, especially in the area of Mindanao. Updates? As mentioned earlier, the current Bangsamoro regional government operates on both power-sharing and power-dividing approaches. Lara, F. & Champain, P. (2009, July) Inclusive peace in Muslim Mindanao: revisiting the dynamics of conflict and exclusion.

On October 20, 2011, the MILF was blamed for an attack on 40 government soldiers in the province of Basilan, which lead to the deaths of 19 soldiers and 6 MILF fighters. Summary of the Irregular Warfare Annex to the National Defense Strategy, The Militarisation of Iran’s Presidency: The IRGC and the 2021 Elections, Air Force Wants 'Data Science Ecosystems' to Shorten OODA Loops, The Army is shutting down its highly praised Asymmetric Warfare Group, How Organized Crime Networks Are Using Drones to Their Advantage, The Emerging Risk of Virtual Societal Warfare: Social Manipulation in a Changing Information Environment, Hostile Social Manipulation, Present Realities and Emerging Trends, Artificial Intelligence for Medical Evacuation in Great-Power Conflict, Armed gangs are perpetuating Mombasa’s narco-city image, New Game, the First Offered by RAND to Public, Challenges Players to Design Defense Strategies for Uncertain World, National Strategy for Combating Terrorist and Other Illicit Financing (2020 Strategy), Moscow's Mercenary Wars: The Expansion of Russian Private Military Companies, The Future Role of the U.S. Armed Forces in Counterterrorism, Arab Unity in the Middle East Can Be a Barrier to Iran’s Regional Goals.